William Stallings's Data and Computer Communications PDF

By William Stallings

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The transport layer examines the transport protocol data unit header and, on the basis of the SAP field in the header, delivers the enclosed record to the appropriate application, in this case the file transfer module in Y. The TCP/IP Protocol Architecture Two protocol architectures have served as the basis for the development of interoperable communications standards: the TCPIIP protocol suite and the OSI reference model. TCPIIP is the most widely used interoperable architecture, and OSI has become the standard model for classifying communications functions.

Now, if we let fl = lo6 cycles/second = 1 MHz, then the bandwidth of the signal is (5 X lo6) - lo6 = 4 MHz. Note that for fi = 1 MHz, the period of the funda= 1 Fsec. 5 psec, for a data rate of 2 X lo6 = 2 Mbps. Thus, for a bandwidth of 4 Mhz, a data rate of 2 Mbps is achieved. Now suppose that we have a bandwidth of 8 MHz. 8a, but now with fi = 2 MHz. 8 Frequency components of a square wave (T = llfi). the bandwidth of the signal is (5 x 2 x lo6) - (2 x lo6) = 8 MHz. 5 Fsec. 25 Fsec for a data rate of 4 Mbps.

Now, let fl = 2 MHz. Using the same line of reasoning as before, the bandwidth of the signal in Figure 2 . 5 is ~ (3 X 2 X lo6) (2 X lo6) = 4 MHz. 5 psec. 25 psec, for a data rate of 4 Mbps. Thus, a given bandwidth can support various data rates depending on the requirements of the receiver. We can draw the following general conclusions from the above observations. In general, any digital waveform will have infinite bandwidth. If we attempt to transmit this waveform as a signal over any medium, the nature of the medium will limit the bandwidth that can be transmitted.

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Data and Computer Communications by William Stallings

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