Beverly Mayne Kienzle's Cistercians, Heresy and Crusade in Occitania, 1145-1229: PDF

By Beverly Mayne Kienzle

ISBN-10: 190315300X

ISBN-13: 9781903153000

Led through the instance of Bernard of Clairvaux, Cistercian clergymen grew to become their consciousness to the realm outdoors the monastery partitions in line with the probability posed through heretical Christians, particularly the Cathars.

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Extra resources for Cistercians, Heresy and Crusade in Occitania, 1145-1229: Preaching in the Lord's Vineyard

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Kienzle, ` Touchstone', pp. 35±40. SchuÈssler Fiorenza, But She Said, pp. 80±101; SchuÈssler Fiorenza, Bread Not Stone, pp. 93±115. See also Kienzle, `Touchstone', pp. 20±1, 44±9. 3d ± 29/11/0 ± 19:44 ± disk/mp Introduction: Appendix targets for persecution and in elaborating the mechanisms of persecution. Robert Moore's highly in¯uential book, The Formation of a Persecuting Society, exempli®es that approach. 16 I consider in this book both individual Cistercians and their society, with the intent to highlight the Cistercians as agents, authors of texts and doers of deeds who in¯uenced social structures.

Cistercian monasteries expanded there rapidly, and troubadours such as Bertran de Born and Fulk of Toulouse entered the order. Preaching missions began with Bernard of Clairvaux's in 1145, and later Cistercians continued to supply leadership and intellectual fuel to the campaigns. 8 Gregory VII (1073±85) and his adviser, Humbert of Silva Candida, de®ned a hierarchical view of Christendom that ®xed all lay persons below the ecclesiastical hierarchy, headed by the pope at Rome with all the bishops and Church leaders subordinate to him.

On vernacular literature, see Paterson, pp. 90±119. French histories of Occitania include A. Armengaud and R. Lafont, Histoire d'Occitanie (Paris, 1979); P. Wolff, Histoire du Languedoc (Toulouse, 1967). 3d ± 29/11/0 ± 19:43 ± disk/mp Image not available Fig. 1. Occitania in the early thirteenth century. 6 The nature of these trends and their signi®cance for the Cistercians, heresy and Occitania are examined in more detail in the remainder of this chapter. The impact of these currents on preaching manifests itself in a swirl of debates over propagation of the faith, waged within clerical ranks and between clerics and lay people.

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Cistercians, Heresy and Crusade in Occitania, 1145-1229: Preaching in the Lord's Vineyard by Beverly Mayne Kienzle

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