New PDF release: China's past, China's future : energy, food, environment

By Vaclav Smil

ISBN-10: 0203563204

ISBN-13: 9780203563205

Content material: China's Biophysical Foundations -- My chinese language studies -- demanding situations Of figuring out -- Interdisciplinary views -- strength -- part a Century Of Advances -- carrying on with significance Of conventional Energies -- A Failed technique -- From a brand new Saudi Arabia To issues approximately Oil safety -- A outstanding Shift In strength Intensities -- nutrients -- The World's maximum Famine -- From Subsistence To Satiety -- nutritional Transitions -- Nitrogen In China's Agriculture -- Can China Feed Itself? -- surroundings -- Attitudes And Constraints -- the 1st Of The 5 components -- China's surroundings And defense -- price Of China's Environmental swap -- Megaprojects And China's atmosphere -- having a look forward through in retrospect -- Failed Forecasts -- Contending tendencies

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Additional resources for China's past, China's future : energy, food, environment

Example text

This situation improved rapidly after 1980, and, as the following excerpts from my 1988 and 1993 books will indicate, I used the new information to present both more detailed, and more accurate, appraisals of China’s rural energy supplies and needs. More information on China’s traditional energy became available during the late 1990s, and I have used it in updating this segment and suggesting some likely future developments. Energy flows in rural China Four fifths of the Chinese population living in villages have been until recently only marginally involved in commercial energy flows, relying as they have for millennia on solar energy to produce, via photosynthesis, not only the necessary food and feed but also large amounts of fuel and raw materials.

Yet to lighten the burden of heavy farm work, to enable easier multicropping (when machinery is essential to perform the field operations speedily), to raise crop yields through fertilization, and to improve rural living standards, the countryside had to become more dependent on nonrenewable energy sources. And, inevitably, it did. Deng’s economic reforms led to many far-reaching changes in China’s countryside, and substantial increases in the flow of modern energies to the countryside and higher reliance on synthetic fertilizers were among the key ingredients of this sweeping change.

25 Given the anticipated increase of coal consumption, it will be extremely difficult to prevent a further substantial rise of SO2 emissions. Annual averages of SO2 concentrations have been above the recommended WHO levels in every northern Chinese city and, because of high-S content of many southern coals, also in many centers south of the Yangzi. Beijing annual means have run between 80µg/m3 in the cleanest suburbs and twice that much in the most polluted locations. These are low levels compared to annual means (all in mg/m3) over 400 in Taiyuan and Lanzhou.

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China's past, China's future : energy, food, environment by Vaclav Smil


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