By Tansen Sen
Kin among China and India underwent a dramatic transformation from Buddhist-dominated to commerce-centered exchanges within the 7th to 15th centuries. The unfolding of this variation, its explanations, and wider ramifications are tested during this masterful research of the altering styles of interplay among the 2 most vital cultural spheres in Asia.
Tansen Sen deals a brand new viewpoint on Sino-Indian kin through the Tang dynasty (618-907), arguing that the interval is impressive not just for non secular and diplomatic exchanges but additionally for the method during which China emerged as a middle of Buddhist studying, perform, and pilgrimage. ahead of the 7th century, the chinese language clergy--given the spatial hole among the sacred Buddhist global of India and the peripheral China--suffered from a "borderland complex." The emergence of China as a middle of Buddhism had profound implications on non secular interactions among the 2 international locations and is brought up by way of Sen as one of many major reasons for the weakening of China's non secular charm towards India. even as, the expansion of indigenous chinese language Buddhist colleges and teachings retrenched the necessity for doctrinal enter from India. an in depth exam of the failure of Buddhist translations produced in the course of the music dynasty (960-1279) demonstrates that those advancements have been answerable for the unraveling of non secular bonds among the 2 nations and the termination of the Buddhist part of Sino-Indian kinfolk.
Sen proposes that adjustments in spiritual interactions have been paralleled through alterations in advertisement exchanges. for many of the 1st millennium, buying and selling actions among India and China have been heavily attached with and sustained in the course of the transmission of Buddhist doctrines. The 11th and 12th centuries, even if, witnessed dramatic adjustments within the styles and constitution of mercantile task among the 2 nations. Secular bulk and comfort items changed Buddhist ritual goods, maritime channels changed the overland Silk highway because the so much ecocnomic conduits of industrial trade, and plenty of of the retailers concerned have been fans of Islam instead of Buddhism. furthermore, regulations to inspire international exchange instituted by means of the chinese language executive and the Indian kingdoms contributed to the intensification of industrial task among the 2 nations and remodeled the China-India buying and selling circuit right into a key phase of cross-continental trade.
Buddhism, international relations, and Trade brings a clean figuring out to cross-cultural Sino-Indian encounters, elucidating for the 1st time major adjustments within the non secular, advertisement, and diplomatic interactions among the 2 international locations.
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Extra info for Buddhism, Diplomacy, and Trade: The Realignment of Sino-Indian Relations, 600-1400
Teqin), the king of Zabulistan, sent an envoy to the Tang Emperor Xuanzong who revealed the princess' desire to defect to Kasmir. The envoy reported: 65 Zabulistan is one thousand five hundred tricents from the king dom of Kasmir. [And] from Kasmir to Tibet, which is where Princess Jincheng resides, it is seven days by road. In the fifth lunar m o n t h of the previous year (June-July 723), Princess Jincheng sent two Chinese envoys through a secret route to the kingdom of~Kasmir to convey [her] message saying, ' Y o u have genuine inclinations toward China.
It may be noted that when the Chi nese envoy had an audience with the Nepali king, the kingdom was already subjugated by the Tibetan ruler Srong-brtsan sgam-po. Moreover, before he received the Chinese Princess Wencheng through a marriage alliance in 641, Srong-brtsan sgam-po had already in 633 obtained a Nepalese princess through similar method. This ChineseTibetan-Nepali nexus, thus, might explain Wang Xuance's success in gathering military support from Tibet and Nepal in a short time. If other rulers in South Asia were for some reason unaware of the existence of the powerful Tang Empire, then Wang Xuance's comprehensive victory against Arunasa may have drawn their atten tion to China.
T h e second Tang embassy to Kanauj, for example, seems to have been sent on behalf of the Chinese Buddhist clergy. Con sisting of twenty-two people, the mission led by L i Yibiao, who held the titles of Chaosan dafu (Grand Master for Closing Court), Weiweisi cheng (Aide to the Court of the Imperial Regalia), and Shang hujun (Senior Military Protector), and the second-in-command Wang Xuance, a former District Magistrate (Xianling), arrived i n Kanauj in the twelfth lunar month of the seventeenth year of the Zhengguan era (January-February 6 4 4 ) .
Buddhism, Diplomacy, and Trade: The Realignment of Sino-Indian Relations, 600-1400 by Tansen Sen