Read e-book online Biological reaction engineering : principles, applications PDF

By Irving J Dunn

ISBN-10: 1560812699

ISBN-13: 9781560812692

ISBN-10: 3527285113

ISBN-13: 9783527285112

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Example text

A total material balance is required to model the changing liquid volume and this is combined with a dynamic heat balance equation. Assuming constant density, the material balance equation is where for time t less than the filling time, VFo,the outlet flow F1, equals zero, and for time t greater than V/Fo, F1 equals Fo. 2 Formulation of Dynamic Models Assuming A0 is the total heating surface in the full tank, with volume, VQ, and assuming a linear variation in heating area with respect to liquid depth, the heat transfer area may vary according to the simple relationship V A = AQVQ More complex relationships can of course be derived, depending on the particular tank geometry concerned.

Of these various forms of energy, changes of internal energy are usually dominant in chemical systems. The other terms are usually neglected. Internal energy, U, can be expressed in terms of enthalpy, H E = U = H - (PV) The accumulation term is given only in terms of enthalpies, since the d(PV) term is usually negligible in chemical reactors. 2 Formulation of Dynamic Models 29 S dE d - = -xnihil dt . dt 1=1 h, is the partial molar enthalpy of component i. Combining these equations and assuming the other work Ws = 0, yields the energy balance equation S -dx n i h i l dt 1=1 .

Kmol/m3 or "C, and the model solution will also usually be expressed in terms of the resultant concentration or temperature profiles, obtained with respect to either time or distance. Each variable will have some maximum value, which is usually possible to establish by simple inspection of the system. Time, as a variable, usually does not have a maximum value, but some characteristic value of time can always be identified. Using these values, a new set of dimensionless variables can be obtained, simply, by dividing all the variables by the appropriate maximum value or by the characteristic time value.

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Biological reaction engineering : principles, applications and modelling with PC simulation by Irving J Dunn

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