By C. Heald, A. C. K. Smith (auth.)
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It is comparatively simple to show that U is a property of state. 2 kJ of work are required to increase the temperature of 1 kg by 1 K and this figure is 19 THERMOCHEMISTRY independent of the device used to perform the work. 1 that dU=dw As a given amount of work done on the water always produces the same change in state (that is, the same rise in temperature), it follows that a given change in U is always associated with the same change in state. Hence, it is possible to write dU=U2-U1 where ul and u2 are the thermodynamic energies of the initial and final states respectively; each is completely defined when the properties of the initial and final states are fixed.
If the process is isothermal, dU will be zero, since molecular energy is independent of volume; there I? 1 Expansion-compression cycle for an ideal gas are no forces between the molecules of an ideal gas and consequently their energy is independent of their separation. Thus it follows that dqe =Px dV If the gas is subsequently returned to its original volume by increasing P x to a value in excess of P, it follows in a similar manner that dqc=PdV As the value of P x in the original expansion must have been less than P, it follows that dq cis greater than dqe and that the reservoir receives more heat from the gas 36 APPLIED PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY on compression than it donated originally on expansion.
69 at the autoclave pressure. 6 MN m- 2 for the autoclave pressure. This second estimate of P can be used, in a manner identical to the above, to obtain a second and more accurate estimate of z and hence a third estimate of P. 1 MN m - 2 , which is not detectably different from values obtained in the 6th and subsequent cycles. 9 This example illustrates the procedure that can be used when it is desired to calculate the temperature of a gas. 0 m3 capacity is to be filled with 4000 mol of diethy1 ether and it is required to estimate the temperature above which the vessel must not be heated if a pressure of 20 MN m- 2 is not to be exceeded.
Applied Physical Chemistry by C. Heald, A. C. K. Smith (auth.)