By Dorothy Bartlett
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Extra resources for Advanced Practical Organic Chemistry
Note that a quaternary amine is positively charged and is therefore known as a quaternary ammonium ion. It is not possible to get a quaternary amide. Fig. (a) Amines; (b) amides. ) depending on the carbon to which the alcohol or halide is attached and it ignores the bond to the functional group. Thus, quaternary alcohols or alkyl halides are not possible. Fig. Alcohols and alkyl halides; (a) primary; (b) secondary; (c) tertiary. For example, which illustrate different types of alcohols and alkyl halides: Advanced Practical Organic Chemistry 36 Fig.
This portion of the molecule is called a functional group–in this case a carboxylic acid. Fig. (a) Ethane; (b) ethanoic acid. Common Functional Groups Some of the more common functional groups in organic chemistry are as follows: (i) Functional groups containing carbon and hydrogen only: Fig. (a) Alkene; (b) alkyne; (c) aromatic. (ii) Functional groups containing nitrogen: Fig. (a) Nitrile; (b) amine; (c) amide; (d) nitro. (iii) Functional groups involving single bonds and containing oxygen: R—OH (a) O R R (b) Fig.
Fig. 4-Methyl-2-pentanol. Ethers and Alkyl Halides For the nomenclature for ethers and alkyl halides the functional group is considered to be a substituent of the main alkane chain. The functional group is numbered and named as a substituent: Fig. (a) 1-Chloropropane: (b) 1-methoxypropane. In ethers we have two alkyl groups on either side of the oxygen. The larger alkyl group is the parent alkane. The smaller alkyl group along with the oxygen is the substituent and is called an alkoxy group. Advanced Practical Organic Chemistry 30 Aldehydes and Ketones The suffix for an aldehyde (or alkanal) is -anal, and the suffix for a ketone (or alkanone) is -anone.
Advanced Practical Organic Chemistry by Dorothy Bartlett