Read e-book online A New Reference Grammar of Modern Spanish PDF

By John Butt, Carmen Benjamin (auth.)

ISBN-10: 1461583683

ISBN-13: 9781461583684

ISBN-10: 1461583705

ISBN-13: 9781461583707

(abridged and revised) This reference grammar deals intermediate and complicated scholars a cause­ ably entire advisor to the morphology and syntax of knowledgeable speech and simple prose in Spain and Latin the United States on the finish of the 20 th century. Spanish is the most, often the only legitimate language of twenty-one countries,} and it's set reasonable to overhaul English by means of the 12 months 2000 in numbers 2 of local audio system. This large geographical and political variety guarantees that Spanish is an efficient deal much less unified than French, German or maybe English, the latter roughly the world over standardized in line with both American or British norms. till the Nineteen Sixties, the factors of across the world right Spanish have been dictated by means of the genuine Academia Espanola, however the status of this establishment has now sunk so low that its such a lot solemn decrees are infrequently taken heavily - witness the destiny of the spelling reforms indexed within the Nuevas normas de prosodia y ortograjia, that have been imagined to come into strength in all Spanish-speaking international locations in 1959 and, approximately 40 years later, are nonetheless selectively neglected by means of publishers and literate folks far and wide. in fact that during Spanish 'correctness' is these days made up our minds, because it is in all dwelling languages, through the consensus of local audio system; yet consensus approximately linguistic utilization is clearly tricky to accomplish among greater than twenty self sufficient, broadly scattered and infrequently collectively adversarial international locations. Peninsular Spanish is itself in flux.

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Extra resources for A New Reference Grammar of Modern Spanish

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22 Definite article with sports teams The mas~e article is used before sports teams: el Granada 'Granada FC', el Manchester United, el Argentina. 23 Definite article before nouns of family relationship Abuelo/abuela takes the article: Entre a dar un beso a la abuela 'I went in to give grandmother a kiss', EI abuelo comia en silencio 'Grandfather was eating in silence'. Tio/tia 'uncle/aunt' also take the article: Di un beso a la tia 'I gave auntie a kiss'. e di un beso a tia Julia 'I kissed aunt Julia'.

24 Definite article with personal titles The definite article is used before the title of a person being talked about: el sefior Moreira, el profesor Smith, el general Rodriguez, el presidente Belaunde, el doctor Fleming, el padre Blanco 'Father Blanco'. It is not used if the person is directly addressed: Pase usted, sefior Sender/sefior Presidente/padre Blanco 'Come in Mr SenderlMr President! Father Blanco' . The definite article is not, however, used before don, dofia, fray, san, santa, sor, or before foreign titles like mister, monsieur, Herr: don Miguel, fray Bentos, santa Teresa, sor Juana, mister Smith, etc.

11 The 17th-century playwright Lope de Vega allegedly said that Don Quixote was the worst book he had ever read. 2. 3. 4. g. 4. 3. 2. 1 Masculine and feminine definite articles Masculine Feminine Singular el la Plural los las La is always written in full in modern Spanish. Compare Spanish la artista 'woman artist' with Italian l'artista. The -a is not elided in pronunciation before words beginning with a vowel other than a: la emisora 'radio station' is pronounced [laemis6ra], not [lemis6ra]. 2 Use of el and un before certain feminine nouns EI and un are always used immediately before singular feminine nouns beginning with stressed a- or ha-, despite the fact that all the adjectives and pronouns that modify these nouns must be in the feminine form.

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A New Reference Grammar of Modern Spanish by John Butt, Carmen Benjamin (auth.)


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